December, 2016

Comfortably Numb

My research project has been progressing well and a lot better than I thought. The only problem I’m having is organizing and structuring my paper so that it flows well for readers.

The introduction has been a problem because I want to provide certain information for readers through the introduction, but I don’t want to give away too much that the reader can already assume what I’ll be discussing later on. I’m also not sure if I should format the paper with subheadings or make it continuous. I’m looking back on Hayot’s chapters: Chapter 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, and 18 to help me with this problem and some of it has been helpful. The stance I’m taking might be just reviewing and studying the theoretical terrain and relating / coming up with new ideas.

Also, finishing up on finals with other courses has been a burden and messes up my stream-of-consciousness. So I needed to get all of that out of the way before I start writing.

The good thing is that I have a lot of evidence and enough information to support my project. I didn’t have to make any detrimental changes to my annotated bibliography and actually added a huge argument that allows me to open up a new and relatable realm to my paper.

And I’m also running out of Merlot.

Annotated Bibliography + Ballroom Diagram

Anastasiou, Dimitris and James M. Kauffman. “Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education.” Remedial and Special Education, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2012, pp. 11.

This article examines and criticizes the treatment of disability being a cultural difference by theorists who are of the “social model,” a model that considers “disability to be a specific social and economic structure that excludes impaired people from participation in mainstream activities” and the “minority group model,” proposed by scholars with disabilities, propose that the “definition of disability directs attention to the sociopolitical significance of the ineraction between persons and the environments that surround them” (139-140). By comparing disability with something like cultural difference, Kauffman and Anastasiou attempt to create a positive identity in the term disability that is similar to other civil rights movements. By including this article, I hope to find a deeper understanding of why and how disability can be used as a positive term and relate it to the impact it may have in an educational setting.

Armstrong, Thomas. Neurodiversity in the Classroom : Strength-Based Strategies to Help Students with Special Needs Succeed in School and Life. Alexandria, US: ASCD, 2012. ProQuest ebrary.

Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. is the Executive Director of the American Institute for Learning and Human Development. He has 16 books, all mostly pertaining to the topic of education. Armstrong’s book suggests important strategies that will help all educators when it comes to dealing with neurodiverse students. He emphasizes on “positive niche construction- that is, the establishment of a favorable environment within which a student with special needs can flourish in school” (4). I can compare this book with the Kauffman article and also my literary texts that represent positive niche construction.

Haddon, Mark. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time. Toronto: Anchor Canada, 2004.

Mark Haddon is an English novelist. Curious Incident won the Whitbread Award, Guardian Prize, and a Commonwealth Writers Prize. Haddon’s novel includes aspects of education: it’s no secret to Christopher that he attends a special school, Christopher’s Mom tries to educate him herself as much as she can, etc. Although Haddon’s blog emphasizes on this novel representing difference and not a particular disease, I can still add this literary perspective to my overall topic. The novel also has arguments about whether or not it should be involved in school curriculums. I’m trying to open up a more literary lens with Haddon’s novel that opens up a larger discussion to neurodiversity in the classroom.

Higashida, Naoki. The Reason I Jump: The Inner Voice of a Thirteen-Year-Old Boy with Autism. United States: Random House Trade, 2016. Print.

(In process) Naoki Higashida is a Japanese poet, novelist, and essayist. He was diagnosed with autism at the age of 5 and was not able to make himself understood around people. He was able to quickly pick up on Japanese characters and was better at expressing himself through that (think Mukhopadhyay). The Reason I Jump was written when Higashida was thirteen and is a memoir on how his autistic mind thinks, feels, perceives, and responds. I will probably use this as a first-person approach to how Higashida was educated whether it is at school or outside of school.

Kauffman, J. M and Jeanmarie Badar, “How We Might Make Special Education for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Less Stigmatizing,” Behavioral Disorders, Vol. 39, No. 1, 2013, pp. 16-27

Kauffman and Badar say “The stigma with identification as needing special education for EBD (emotional or behavioral disorders, or any other disability) could be reduced by talking in readily understood language about differences, accepting the reality of differences and what they mean for students’ education, emphasizing the benefits of special education and the special skills needed to provide it, and working to make special education for students with EBD the special instruction and behavior management it should be” (16). This source adds to the conversation of making special education less stigmatizing and raising the awareness of difference. By implementing this source into my research it factors into the neurodiversity movement with its acceptance of diversity and also adds to the reservation of special education.

Kauffman, J. M and Jeanmarie Badar, “Instruction, Not Inclusion, Should Be the Central Issue in Special Education: An Alternative View from the USA,” Journal of International Special Needs Education, vol. 17, no. 1, 2014, pp. 13-20.

Kauffman and Badar state “A focus on anything other than instruction undercuts the legal and moral rights of students with disabilities to an appropriate education and fails to produce substantive social justice…Instructionally-relevant differences include many disabilities, but they do not include such differences as skin hue, parentage, sexual orientation, national origin, and many other kinds of diversity” (13). Both emphasize on the importance of instruction over inclusion for the sake of the students’ needs. This article adds both a practical and emotional factor to why special education should still exist.

Kauffman, J. M., Lloyd, J. W., Baker, J., & Riedel, T. M., “Inclusion of all students with emotional or behavioral disorders? Let’s think again,” Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 76, No. 7, 1995, pp. 542-546.

This source argues against including neurodiverse students into mainstream classrooms. A disclaimer is given at the beginning of the article, “While we attempt to make regular schools and classrooms inclusive in the best sense for as many students as possible, we should not be guided by overgeneralizations or become detached from the realities of classroom teaching, the authors warn”.  Kauffman is an American who has an Ed.D in special education and has made significant contributions to both the mainstream education and the special education field. Lloyd has a Ph.D in education with specialization in special education. Both teach at the University of Virginia. (Have yet to find background on the other 2 authors). Their article allows me to look at the counter-argument of including nerudiverse students in mainstream classrooms and join in on the conversation.

Mock, Devery R., and James M. Kauffman. “Preparing Teachers For Full Inclusion: Is It Possible?” Teacher Educator, Vol. 37, No. 3 2002, pp. 202-15.

This article examines various fields as to why it is impossible to train teachers to teach both mainstream students and students with specific disabilities effectively. They mention those in favor of inclusion as taking an emotional appeal to the topic and for those who oppose the inclusion taking a scientific approach. From civil rights to apartheid, slavery, and segregation, this article can impact the teaching portion for my research.

Mukhopadhyay, Tito Rajarshi. How Can I Talk If My Lips Don’t Move? Inside My Autistic Mind. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2011. Print.

Another first-person approach to education, Mukhopadhyay is similar to Higashida as they both use writing as a way of communicating. In this book, Mukhopadhyay is educated by his mother and that holds a huge influence on him and he also attended the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing and said that it going to this school “worked better for [him] than going to any special school” (174).

Silberman, Steve. Neurotribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity. , 2015. Print.

(In process) It would be wrong not to include Silberman’s book because he brings up important points that will help any paper on neurodiversity. Silberman brings up some personal experiences that include educational features that I can possibly use for my research.


Possible sources:

Walton, Elizabeth, “Using Literature as a Strategy to Promote Inclusivity in High School Classrooms,” Intervention in School and Clinic, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2012, pp. 224-233.

I was going to use this source to provide examples of how including literature such as Curious Incident, How Can I Talk, and The Reason I Jump into class curriculum can be beneficial to students by opening the discussion of accepting diversity.

Brantlinger, A. Ellen. “Conclusion: Whose Labels? Whose Norms? Whose Needs? Whose Benefits?Who Benefits from Special Education?, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2006. PDF. 1 Dec 2016.

Brantlinger’s textbook holds many articles by both herself and other scholars addressing the aspects of special education. In her conclusion, though, she talks about the individual’s identity when exposed to these norms of being different and the effects on the person’s self-perception. It would add to the cultural as difference and positive identity conversation.


ballroom-photoshop(Click to enlarge)

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